According to the legend, Martim Moniz was a knight participating in the Christian invasion force, led by king Afonso I of Portugal, in the Siege of Lisbon, during the Reconquista. At one point in the siege of São Jorge Castle, he saw the Moors closing the castle doors. He led an attack on the doors, and sacrificed himself by lodging himself in the doorway, preventing the defenders from fully closing the door.
This heroic act allowed time for his fellow soldiers to arrive and secure the door, leading to the eventual capture of the castle.
People gathered in Trafalgar Square, London, to celebrate the end of WW2 in Europe
Scottish Basket-hilted Broadsword
- Dated: circa 1700
- Culture: Scottish
- Inscription: “Andrea Ferara” (on the blade)
It is unclear if the blade was indeed made by Andrea Ferrara since the name inscribed on the blade seems to be misspelled. Andrea was a maker of sword-blade highly esteemed in Scotland in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Sir Walter Scott notes that the name of Andrea de Ferrara was inscribed "on all the Scottish broadswords that are accounted of peculiar excellence". No historical person of that name can be identified, but Scott reports a general belief that Ferrara was a Spanish or Italian artificer who was brought to Scotland in the early 16th century, by either James IV or V, to instruct the Scots in the manufacture of the high-quality steel blades current in Renaissance Europe.
According to some sources the name of the manufacturer was Andrea dei Ferrari of Belluno, according to others, Andrew Ferrars or Ferrier of Arbroat.
history meme - 1/10 moments - the dreyfus affair
the political scandal known as the dreyfus affair divided france for over 10 years since its beginnings in 1894, when alsatian jewish captain of the french army alred dreyfus was publicly accused of treason through espionage against france and sentenced to life imprisonment on devil’s island
dreyfus was proven to be resoundingly innocent, the victim of institutional antisemitism and nationalism, and the truth was suppressed by members of the military and the government through the use of false documents
the immense government deceit and the corrupt nature of france’s political and judicial system throughout the dreyfus affair spurred protests and activism, most notably in the form of emile zola’s open letter “j’accuse” published in 1898, and threatened to split the country into two conflicting political factions
The level of corruption and anti-Semitism that prevailed in 19th and 20th century Europe was revealed by the Dreyfus Affair of 1894 – 1906. Indeed, the event was of such consequence that it has been continually linked by leading historians (notably James L. Gelvin) to Theodor Herzl’s embrace of Zionism. For Herzl, the Dreyfus affair revealed the isolated position of the Jewish population who were subject to discrimination and persecution throughout Europe. Thus it inspired within Herzl a desire to create a separate land for the Jews – one where their rights and freedom would be respected. Indeed, following the first two years of the Dreyfus affair, Herzl published Der Judenstaat (“the Jewish State”) in which he urged the Jewish population to leave Europe either for Argentina or their biblical homeland, Israel. Henceforth one cannot downplay the significance of the Dreyfus Affair in spurring on Jewish individuals like Theodor Herzl – the founder of modern political Zionism, and perhaps the State of Israel itself.
June 22, 1945: The Battle of Okinawa ends.
The Allied assault on the Okinawa Islands was the bloodiest and one of the last major battles of the Pacific War.The Okinawa Islands were of great strategic importance to the Allies for the role they would have played during the planned November invasion of the Japanese mainland; the islands’ airfields, located only several hundred miles away from the rest of the Japanese archipelago, would have served as launch pads from which the invasion would begin. Over 100,000 Japanese and American combatants were killed, along with an estimated 100,000 civilians and commanders on both the Allied and Japanese sides, during the eighty-day-long battle over the sixty-mile-long island.
Not only was the Battle of Okinawa (codenamed “Operation Iceberg”) the bloodiest clash of the Pacific War, it was also one of the largest (and was, in fact, the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific) – over 100,000 troops participated on each side; some 1,400 American ships were also involved in the battle, dozens sunk by desperate kamikaze attacks; and, because of the sheer scale of the battle, it has been referred to as the “typhoon of steel”. Much of the combat and fiercest fighting took place in the southern portion of the island, but, despite fierce Japanese counter-attacks, resistance was mostly wiped out by mid-June. Realizing their force’s impending, inevitable defeat, the three Japanese commanders - Mitsuru Ushijima, Isamu Cho, and Minoru Ota - chose to commit seppuku toward the end of the battle rather than surrender.
One other notable aspect of the Battle of Okinawa was the presence of a significantly large civilian population living on the island, caught in the crossfire between Japanese and Allied attacks. Around 300,000 people lived on Okinawa before the assault began, and, according to US Army estimates, nearly half were dead by the end, from bombings and artillery fire, starvation, forced military service, and mass executions. The vast majority of buildings on Okinawa were also destroyed during the battle. Some historians theorize that the bloody results of the battle may have influenced strategists to seek a different means to end the war besides a full-scale mainland invasion.
U.S. soldier looks into washroom mirror with sign around it reading “IF YOU TALK TOO MUCH THIS MAN MAY DIE!”. Encouragement of not spreading information which might be sensitive in the War effort during World War II. Camp Hood, Texas, 1943.
Evolution of the languages of Iberia.
Probably one of the coolest things I’ve seen in a while
June 14, 1667: The Raid on the Medway ends in a British defeat.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War was one of four wars fought between the Dutch Republic and England (Great Britain after 1707) - at the time Europe’s greatest seafaring and trading powers, and natural rivals in that respect. The first concluded in 1654 (an English victory), and the second began eleven years later, after the restoration of Charles II to the throne, born of widespread pro-war sentiment and the continued competition between the two nations over maritime trade.
The famous Raid on the Medway, also called the Battle of Chatham, was a naval clash that ended in the epic defeat of the Royal Navy, one of the worst in its history, and precipitated a quick end to the war. At this point in the conflict, Charles II was opening peace talks with the Dutch while also soliciting aid from the French, and, with war funds running low, his fleet was left in a temporary state of weakness - ripe for attack, according to the Dutch grand pensionary and planner of the raid, Johan de Witt. On June 9, the Dutch fleet under Admiral Michiel de Ruyter launched an attack on a group of English ships on the poorly-defended River Medway, destroying thirteen ships and capturing the HMS Unity,a Dutch warship-turned-English guard ship, and the fleet’s flagship HMS Royal Charles. The success of the Dutch attack and embarrassing defeat of the Royal Navy struck a blow to English morale; the ignominy of the loss was accompanied by a wave of panic and fear regarding rumors of a full-blown Dutch invasion. This did not come, but the end of the war a little over two weeks later. Of the Dutch fleet’s presence on the Thames, Samuel Pepys wrote in his diary:
…it was pretty news come the other day so fast, of the Dutch fleets being in so many places, that Sir W. Batten at table cried, By God, says he, I think the Devil shits Dutchmen.
June 6, 1944: The Allied invasion of Normandy begins.
In June of 1940, Nazi Germany successfully completed its invasion of France with the signing of an armistice at Compiègne, which divided France into two zones - one which was to be henceforth occupied by German troops, and a “free zone”, to be administered by a French government at Vichy. In late 1942 German-Italian forces carried out a complete military occupation of the free zone. By 1944 much of Europe was either occupied by Axis forces or controlled by direct allies; between the neutral Iberian Peninsula to the Eastern Front, France, Greece, the Baltics, the Netherlands, and Denmark were among the states occupied by German or Axis forces. Along the western coast of Europe, Germany established a system of fortifications collectively known as the “Atlantic Wall”, whose construction began in 1942 to thwart any Allied invasion launched across the English Channel from Great Britain.
The landing of Allied forces at Normandy on June 6, 1944 (commonly known as D-Day) marked the beginning of Operation Overlord and the beginning of the liberation of mainland Europe from its occupation by Nazi Germany. As Supreme Allied Commander in Europe, Dwight D. Eisenhower was charged with planning and carrying out the beach landing assault, an enormous and momentous task - in the end, approximately 160,000 troops participated in the assault on an 80 km long stretch of Normandy coast, which was divided into five sectors: Gold, Utah, Sword, Juno, and Omaha, the link between the U.S. and British sectors, the most easily defensible beach, and the area where fighting was bloodiest. The troops were supported by a fleet of nearly 7,000 vessels, directed mostly by the Royal Navy; airborne operations were also a key element of the landings, with at least 13,000 paratroopers taking part. To mislead and confound Axis military leaders regarding the true date and location of the impending assault, the Allies implemented Operation Bodyguard.
The enormously successful operation was a decisive victory for the Allied powers and a major blow to Germany’s psyche and morale. Operation Overlord came to an end with the destruction of German forces at the Falaise Pocket in August of 1944 and the liberation of Paris days later.
Boudica (or Bouddica or Boudecia) was queen of the British Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.
Boudica’s husband Prasutagus, ruler of the Iceni tribe, who had ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman Emperor in his will; however, when he died, his will was ignored —the kingdom was annexed as if conquered, Boudica was flogged, her daughters were raped, and Roman financiers called in their loans.
In AD 60 or 61, while the Roman governor, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, was leading a campaign on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni, Trinovantes and others in revolt.They destroyed Camulodunum (modern Colchester), earlier the capital of the Trinovantes, then a colonia (a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers) and the site of a temple to the former Emperor Claudius. On hearing the news of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (London), the twenty-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels’ next target. He concluded that they did not have the numbers to defend the settlement, so it was evacuated and abandoned. 100,000 (Iceni, Trinovantes and others) led by Boudica burned and destroyed Londinium and Verulamium (St Albans) and the Legio IX Hispana was cut to pieces. An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica. Suetonius, meanwhile, regrouped his forces in the West Midlands and, despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated the Britons in the Battle of Watling Street.
The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius’ eventual victory over Boudica re-secured Roman control of the province. Boudica then either killed herself, so she would not be captured, or fell ill and died—the extant sources, Tacitus and Cassius Dio, differ. [more +]
The daughters of Queen Victoria mourning the death of their father, Prince Albert (1862)
25 de Abril - Revolução dos Cravos
The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25 April (Portuguese: 25 de Abril), was a military coup began on 25 April 1974 in Lisbon, Portugal, and which overthrew the dictatorial regime of the Estado Novo. The revolution started as a military coup organized by the Movimento das Forças Armadas (Armed Forces Movement, MFA), composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but the movement was soon coupled with an unanticipated and popular campaign of civil resistance. This movement would lead to the fall of the Estado Novo and the withdrawal of Portugal from its African colonies.
The name “Carnation Revolution” comes from the fact no shots were fired and when the population started descending the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship and war in the colonies, carnation flowers were put into the muzzles of rifles and on the uniforms of the army.
The Portuguese celebrate the national holiday of Freedom Day (Portuguese: Dia da Liberdade) on 25 April every year to celebrate these events.
Leonardo da Vinci | The Mechanics of Man
April 14, 1865: Abraham Lincoln is assassinated.
Five days after the surrender and deactivation of the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House (the effective end of the war), Abraham Lincoln was shot in the head by John Wilkes Booth, a stage actor and Confederate sympathizer. The demise of the Confederacy pushed Booth, a strongly pro-South, anti-Lincoln Maryland native, over the edge, and he abandoned a kidnapping plot that he and co-conspirators Lewis Powell, George Atzerodt, David Herold, Samuel Arnold, Michael O’Laughlen and John Surratt had been formulating since 1864 in favor of simple assassination.
On April 14, they learned that President Lincoln would be attending a performance of the play Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theatre, in Washington, D.C., later that evening. He and the conspirators gathered once more, and it was decided that Lewis Powell and David Herold would attack Secretary of State William Seward, that George Atzerodt would carry out an assassination attempt on Vice President Andrew Johnson, and that Booth himself would kill Lincoln. The only attack of these that resulted in a death was Booth’s. He entered the Lincolns’ private theatre box during a particularly humorous moment in the play and shot the President once in the head, before leaping onto the stage, where he yelled either the Virginia state motto - “Sic semper tyrannis” - or “the South is avenged!” Booth broke his leg sometime between the fall and his escape, and he went on the run before being shot outside a barn in Virginia on April 26.
Lincoln, meanwhile, was moved to a house across the street from the theatre; he was pronounced dead early the next morning, the day before Easter Sunday. Utterly divisive as a leader in life, Lincoln was nevertheless mourned by millions in both the North and South in death.