Daily History

Feb 23

[video]

Feb 19

[video]

Jan 07

gaskells:

history meme; 4/9 kings/queens { countess teresa }

Teresa (or Tareja) was an illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VI of Léon, Imperator totius Hispaniæ, and supposedly, his favourite child. At the age of thirteen, she was given in marriage to Henry of Burgundy, a younger grandson of the Duke Robert I of Burgundy. As payment for his services in the war against Islam, Henry was also given the county of Portucale and all the territory he could conquer to its South.
Teresa had three surviving children by her marriage, Urraca, Sancha, and Afonso Henriques. She ruled the county as queen after her husband’s death. However, Portucale was still a vassal county of Léon, ruled by her half-sister Urraca I, against whom she revolted in 1116, in alliance with Pedro de Trava, a galician nobleman. In the following year, she began signing as regina, a title recognised by the Pope. The conflit lasted until 1121, when her sister’s army forced her to retreat to the castle of Lanhoso. The treaty signed between them allowed Teresa to keep the govern of the county. In the same year, she began an affair with Fernão Peres de Trava, the son of her ally, by whom she had two daughters.
The death of Urraca, the following alliance between Portucale and Léon and the great power exercised by the Trava family, indisposed the old nobility of the county, who rallied around her estranged son, Afonso, who is known to have been in opposition against his mother since the age of thirteen. The forces of Teresa and Afonso met in battle in 1128, where she was defeated and fled, dying in Galicia in 1130. Her son would crown himself the first King of Portugal nine years later, at the quasi-mythical battle of Ourique.

gaskells:

history meme; 4/9 kings/queens { countess teresa }

Teresa (or Tareja) was an illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VI of Léon, Imperator totius Hispaniæ, and supposedly, his favourite child. At the age of thirteen, she was given in marriage to Henry of Burgundy, a younger grandson of the Duke Robert I of Burgundy. As payment for his services in the war against Islam, Henry was also given the county of Portucale and all the territory he could conquer to its South.

Teresa had three surviving children by her marriage, Urraca, Sancha, and Afonso Henriques. She ruled the county as queen after her husband’s death. However, Portucale was still a vassal county of Léon, ruled by her half-sister Urraca I, against whom she revolted in 1116, in alliance with Pedro de Trava, a galician nobleman. In the following year, she began signing as regina, a title recognised by the Pope. The conflit lasted until 1121, when her sister’s army forced her to retreat to the castle of Lanhoso. The treaty signed between them allowed Teresa to keep the govern of the county. In the same year, she began an affair with Fernão Peres de Trava, the son of her ally, by whom she had two daughters.

The death of Urraca, the following alliance between Portucale and Léon and the great power exercised by the Trava family, indisposed the old nobility of the county, who rallied around her estranged son, Afonso, who is known to have been in opposition against his mother since the age of thirteen. The forces of Teresa and Afonso met in battle in 1128, where she was defeated and fled, dying in Galicia in 1130. Her son would crown himself the first King of Portugal nine years later, at the quasi-mythical battle of Ourique.

(Source: gaskells, via larissamousseline)

Dec 24

gaskells:

ttrincea:

gaskells:

history meme; 1/2 wars { 1383-1385 dinastic crisis }

The death of Fernando I opened a problem of succession to the Portuguese throne. His only child, Beatriz, was only twelve and married to the king of Castile, whilst his will granted his widow, the unpopular and hated Leonor Teles, the regency until his daughter’s male heir reached adulthood, thus securing her power for at least fifteen years.
João was an illegitimate brother of Fernando, raised to be Master of Avis, a military and religious Order. According to some historians, he was pressured to take part in the coup against his sister-in-law. In December 6th, he and his men entered the palace under the guise of requesting more troops. Outside the palace, the population was being mobilized to aid João, viewed as the people’s champion. The Queen’s lover, the Count of Andeiro, was stabbed by the Master of Avis and thrown out of a window and torn apart by a furious mob. The Queen fled and in Castille, Juan I proclaimed himself King of Portugal by his marriage to Beatriz. João, Master of Avis, is proclaimed regent and Defender of the Realm.
Juan II invades and is defeated by Nuno Álvares Pereira, João’s brother-in-arms. Lisbon is besieged for five months, during which there’s a shortage of supplies and every animal inside the walls is eaten. The siege is lifted due to a plague that strikes the castillian troops and Juan is forced to retreat. In 1385, the troops requested to Richard II by the Master arrive, led by John of Gaunt, on the agreement of João’s betrothal to John’s eldest daughter, Philippa.
The Courts of Coimbra, an assembly of the nobility, clergy and people, is summoned in April, to elect the King from the candidates, the Master of Avis, Beatriz, or the eldest illegitimate children of Pedro, by Inês de Castro. His position defended by João das Regras, João is elected by several reasons, not the least of which is the revolutionary for the 14th century “[will] of the greats and the common people”.
In August, the battle of Aljubarrota is fought. The portuguese and english, though vastly outnumbered against the castillian and french, crushed the invading forces. The civilian population took it upon themselves to slaughter the fleeing soldiers, with the famous Baker of Aljubarrota beating several hiding soldiers to death with her shovel.
Defeated in Aljubarrota, the Castillian invasion was not repeated and during the next year Nuno Álvares Pereira submited the remaining fortresses loyal to Beatriz. Viewed by some historians as a revolution, the crisis did indeed determine a radical change in portuguese society. The old nobility which had sided with Beatriz fled to Castille, and a new nobility, composed of illegitimate (as was the case of João I and Nuno Álvares Pereira) and second sons rose in their place. The very concept of portuguese national identity has been pointed as being born during these two years. João I was the first king of the Dinasty of Avis, which ruled until 1581 and saw the height of the portuguese maritime empire in Asia.


João I of Portugal was a usurper and nothing more. It wasn’t the very concept of portuguese national identity that was born there, rather the concept of portuguese hysterical and ridiculous hate towards the spanish.

i disagree with both points. the idea that he was a usurper is an extreme reduction of the entire situation at stake in 1383. it’s true that juan i already had a child and heir to the throne of castile and thus there would have been no union of the crowns. however, it is naive to think that portugal would not have entered the sphere of castillian influence the way aragon did when fernando de antequera became king of aragon, during roughly the same period.
in the 14th century, in the iberian peninsula, the laws of succession were not yet set in stone the way they were in the 16th century. joão, a bastard, became king the same way henrique de trastamara, also a bastard, became king of castille. a majority, and i do mean majority, of the population wanted joão on the throne. you can reduce joão to a mere usurper, sure. but usurper of what? beatriz? she wouldn’t have been queen, fernando’s will bypassed her and gave the succession to her hypotethical male heir, which she never had.
finally, the idea of national identity tends to go hand in hand with defense, in this case of an invading army. and it was an invasion, make no mistake, with quite brutal consequences to the small folk. it was this small folk that, combined with a propaganda machine, changed the mental conceptions, changed them to view themselves as portuguese. it’s a modern process that has echos all over europe, that isn’t found in the middle ages.

gaskells:

ttrincea:

gaskells:

history meme; 1/2 wars { 1383-1385 dinastic crisis }

The death of Fernando I opened a problem of succession to the Portuguese throne. His only child, Beatriz, was only twelve and married to the king of Castile, whilst his will granted his widow, the unpopular and hated Leonor Teles, the regency until his daughter’s male heir reached adulthood, thus securing her power for at least fifteen years.

João was an illegitimate brother of Fernando, raised to be Master of Avis, a military and religious Order. According to some historians, he was pressured to take part in the coup against his sister-in-law. In December 6th, he and his men entered the palace under the guise of requesting more troops. Outside the palace, the population was being mobilized to aid João, viewed as the people’s champion. The Queen’s lover, the Count of Andeiro, was stabbed by the Master of Avis and thrown out of a window and torn apart by a furious mob. The Queen fled and in Castille, Juan I proclaimed himself King of Portugal by his marriage to Beatriz. João, Master of Avis, is proclaimed regent and Defender of the Realm.

Juan II invades and is defeated by Nuno Álvares Pereira, João’s brother-in-arms. Lisbon is besieged for five months, during which there’s a shortage of supplies and every animal inside the walls is eaten. The siege is lifted due to a plague that strikes the castillian troops and Juan is forced to retreat. In 1385, the troops requested to Richard II by the Master arrive, led by John of Gaunt, on the agreement of João’s betrothal to John’s eldest daughter, Philippa.

The Courts of Coimbra, an assembly of the nobility, clergy and people, is summoned in April, to elect the King from the candidates, the Master of Avis, Beatriz, or the eldest illegitimate children of Pedro, by Inês de Castro. His position defended by João das Regras, João is elected by several reasons, not the least of which is the revolutionary for the 14th century “[will] of the greats and the common people”.

In August, the battle of Aljubarrota is fought. The portuguese and english, though vastly outnumbered against the castillian and french, crushed the invading forces. The civilian population took it upon themselves to slaughter the fleeing soldiers, with the famous Baker of Aljubarrota beating several hiding soldiers to death with her shovel.

Defeated in Aljubarrota, the Castillian invasion was not repeated and during the next year Nuno Álvares Pereira submited the remaining fortresses loyal to Beatriz. Viewed by some historians as a revolution, the crisis did indeed determine a radical change in portuguese society. The old nobility which had sided with Beatriz fled to Castille, and a new nobility, composed of illegitimate (as was the case of João I and Nuno Álvares Pereira) and second sons rose in their place. The very concept of portuguese national identity has been pointed as being born during these two years. João I was the first king of the Dinasty of Avis, which ruled until 1581 and saw the height of the portuguese maritime empire in Asia.

João I of Portugal was a usurper and nothing more. It wasn’t the very concept of portuguese national identity that was born there, rather the concept of portuguese hysterical and ridiculous hate towards the spanish.

i disagree with both points. the idea that he was a usurper is an extreme reduction of the entire situation at stake in 1383. it’s true that juan i already had a child and heir to the throne of castile and thus there would have been no union of the crowns. however, it is naive to think that portugal would not have entered the sphere of castillian influence the way aragon did when fernando de antequera became king of aragon, during roughly the same period.

in the 14th century, in the iberian peninsula, the laws of succession were not yet set in stone the way they were in the 16th century. joão, a bastard, became king the same way henrique de trastamara, also a bastard, became king of castille. a majority, and i do mean majority, of the population wanted joão on the throne. you can reduce joão to a mere usurper, sure. but usurper of what? beatriz? she wouldn’t have been queen, fernando’s will bypassed her and gave the succession to her hypotethical male heir, which she never had.

finally, the idea of national identity tends to go hand in hand with defense, in this case of an invading army. and it was an invasion, make no mistake, with quite brutal consequences to the small folk. it was this small folk that, combined with a propaganda machine, changed the mental conceptions, changed them to view themselves as portuguese. it’s a modern process that has echos all over europe, that isn’t found in the middle ages.

(Source: gaskells, via gaskells)

Dec 06

[video]

Nov 17

dr-hexagon:

According to the legend, Martim Moniz was a knight participating in the Christian invasion force, led by king Afonso I of Portugal, in the Siege of Lisbon, during the Reconquista. At one point in the siege of São Jorge Castle, he saw the Moors closing the castle doors. He led an attack on the doors, and sacrificed himself by lodging himself in the doorway, preventing the defenders from fully closing the door.
This heroic act allowed time for his fellow soldiers to arrive and secure the door, leading to the eventual capture of the castle.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martim_Moniz)

dr-hexagon:

According to the legend, Martim Moniz was a knight participating in the Christian invasion force, led by king Afonso I of Portugal, in the Siege of Lisbon, during the Reconquista. At one point in the siege of São Jorge Castle, he saw the Moors closing the castle doors. He led an attack on the doors, and sacrificed himself by lodging himself in the doorway, preventing the defenders from fully closing the door.

This heroic act allowed time for his fellow soldiers to arrive and secure the door, leading to the eventual capture of the castle.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martim_Moniz)

Oct 25

myvintagelondon:

People gathered in Trafalgar Square, London, to celebrate the end of WW2 in Europe

myvintagelondon:

People gathered in Trafalgar Square, London, to celebrate the end of WW2 in Europe

(via dr-hexagon)

Sep 15

[video]

Aug 14

[video]

Jun 22

[video]

collective-history:

U.S. soldier looks into washroom mirror with sign around it reading “IF YOU TALK TOO MUCH THIS MAN MAY DIE!”. Encouragement of not spreading information which might be sensitive in the War effort during World War II. Camp Hood, Texas, 1943.

collective-history:

U.S. soldier looks into washroom mirror with sign around it reading “IF YOU TALK TOO MUCH THIS MAN MAY DIE!”. Encouragement of not spreading information which might be sensitive in the War effort during World War II. Camp Hood, Texas, 1943.

(via greatgdean)

Jun 14

origami10:

guerrilla-airwaves:

Evolution of the languages of Iberia.

Probably one of the coolest things I’ve seen in a while

origami10:

guerrilla-airwaves:

Evolution of the languages of Iberia.

Probably one of the coolest things I’ve seen in a while

(via pallas-athena)

[video]

Jun 06

[video]

Jun 05

[video]